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Copper and Coronavirus: Complete Guide (Updated Daily)

Copper and Coronavirus: Complete Guide (Updated Daily)

**This post was first published on March 11, 2020 and last updated on May 29, 2020 at 7:34pm PDT. It will be updated daily as more science and research on the coronavirus (COVID-19) becomes available.**

Research has shown that copper has anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties which make it a potential tool in the fight against the coronavirus (COVID-19). In this post, we comprehensively discuss all available research and studies. We also explain why copper is an ideal material for reusable water bottles and preferable to water bottles made from plastic or other materials.

General Research and Studies

The effect of copper on bacteria and viruses has recently been the subject of a number of articles, including in Fast Company, Dwell, Vice, Cleveland and the Smithsonian. These articles are all in reaction to a number of recent studies which have explored the capability of copper to kill the coronavirus. The Washington Examiner also recently published an opinion piece from a well-known professor of economics who persuasively made the case for greater use of copper to help slow the spread of future pandemics.

The anti-bacteria and anti-viral nature of copper was discovered long before the outbreak of the coronavirus. It was discovered centuries ago by ancient civilizations which led to the use of copper in various health applications, including in water vessels to purify drinking water. In modern times, copper has been the subject of numerous studies by the scientific community as well as attention from the World Health Organization.

In one recent study, which was published in the Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, scientists studied the effect of storing water in a copper pot on microbially-contaminated drinking water, including harmful bacteria such as e. colisalmonella typhi and vibrio cholerae. In particular, scientists stored water contaminated with this bacteria in copper pots for 16 hours at room temperature. The bacteria was no longer recoverable when the researchers examined it, which was an incredible result compared to water stored in control glass bottles under the same environment (in which the bacteria continued to grow and flourish). The bacterial situation was even worse in reusable plastic bottles.

In another recent study, scientists again studied the effect of storing water in a copper pot on water contaminated with bacteria. In this study, the scientists incubated water with a colony of harmful bacteria and then stored the water overnight at room temperature in both copper pots and glass bottles. In the morning, the bacteria was no longer recoverable from the water that had been stored in the copper pots, although it was recovered from the water stored in the glass bottles. 

In yet another recent study, researchers stored water contaminated with bacteria in a variety of different water containers, including copper and silver containers, in order to determine their efficacy at removing biological contamination from drinking water. The study revealed that the copper vessels had a significant inhibitory effect on the bacteria in the water after only a few hours of exposure. 

In addition, in 2008 the United States Environmental Protection Agency published a study showing that copper surfaces are proven to continuously reduce bacterial contamination and provide continuous antimicrobial action even with repeated exposures. The study also found that copper surfaces continuously kill over 90% of bacteria after repeated exposures during a day, prevent the buildup of disease-causing bacteria, and deliver continuous, long-lasting antibacterial activity.

These and other similar studies confirm long-standing anecdotal evidence linking exposure to copper with resistance to infection. The first recorded medical use of copper appears in the Smith Papyrus, written between 2600 and 2200 B.C. This ancient text said that copper could be used to sterilize wounds and drinking water. In addition, it has been said that ancient civilizations in Egypt and Babylon observed that soldiers found scraping their bronze (an alloy of copper and tin) swords into wounds would tend to be more resistant to infection. In addition, storing water in copper vessels has long been utilized as a practice in India to eliminate microbes from drinking water.

More recently, in the 19th century, during an epidemic of cholera (a bacterial disease) which was spreading through France, a French doctor noticed that laborers at a copper smelter in Paris were not becoming infected with cholera. He observed that the same was true of other people in the city that worked with copper, including jewelers, goldsmiths and boiler makers. That epidemic ended up killing more than 6,000 people out of a population of approximately 1.6 million, reflecting a ratio of approximately 0.4 percent. However, only 45 of the people that worked closely with copper died, representing a ratio of only 0.05 percent.

Research and Studies Specific to the Coronavirus

In addition to the above-noted research, there have also been studies on the effect of copper specifically in respect of the coronavirus.

The first notable study in that regard, published by the Centre for Biological Sciences at the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom, focused on coronavirus 229E (HuCoV-229E). The study found that the virus persisted in an infectious state on common surface materials for several days. However, when the surface material contained copper, the scientists observed rapid inaction of the coronarvirus.

In particular, scientists found that the coronavirus was rapidly inactivated on copper surfaces, with the inactivation rate being roughly proportional to the percentage of copper in the metal surface. In particular, metal alloys containing 90% copper were found to inactivate the virus in 30 minutes or less. The researchers provided the following chart to summarize the impact on the coronavirus by reference to the percentage of copper in the metal surface ("Cu" refers to copper content). The vertical axis represents the amount of virus left on the copper surface:

copper and coronavirus

The researchers concluded that copper surfaces could be employed in communal areas and at any mass gatherings to help reduce transmission of respiratory viruses from contaminated surfaces and protect the public health.

More recently, on March 17, 2020, a new study was released concerning COVID-19 by the National Institutes of Health, CDC, UCLA and Princeton University scientists in The New England Journal of Medicine. The scientists examined the length of time for which specifically COVID-19 could survive on various materials, including aerosols (air), cardboard, plastic, stainless steel and copper. The study concluded that while the coronavirus could survive for up to two to three days on plastic and stainless steel and up to 24 hours on cardboard, it could only survive for up to four hours on copper. This study further confirms the anti-viral nature of copper.

The results of this study can be simplified as follows:

copper and coronavirus

This study has also received attention from The Economist, which published the following helpful summary chart comparing (in a more complex manner) the longevity of the coronavirus on copper as compared to the other materials:

copper and coronavirus

In another study, it was determined that copper can help prevent respiratory viruses, such as the coronavirus, from spreading. In that study, scientists found that the coronavirus was rapidly inactivated within a few minutes by copper surfaces.

Given this research, one may wonder why copper is not more actively used for surfaces in public places, including hospitals. In fact, in one study, scientists concluded that the use of copper surfaces could reduce bacterial and viral infection rates in hospitals by 58 percent. Although most hospitals have not yet adopted this approach, it appears to have significant potential. The following photograph of an intensive care unit in a hospital, care of the Medical University of South Carolina, illustrates the locations in which copper could be used as a surface in a hospital to minimize the spread of infections:

copper and coronavirus

This body of research has recently inspired health sciences researchers at the University of Arizona to study whether or not certain copper-based chemical compounds could potentially stop the virus that causes COVID-19.

How Does Copper Kill Bacteria and Viruses?

The special effects of copper can best be analyzed through the lens of both chemistry and biology. When bacteria or viruses come into contact with copper, they absorb copper ions, which are essentially electrically charged particles.

These copper ions, through a process known as the oligodynamic effect, essentially punch holes into the membranes (walls) of the bacteria and viruses. Once the membrane is damaged, the copper ions move inside and destroy the DNA and RNA, preventing the bacteria and viruses from further multiplying. Interestingly, bacteria have both DNA and RNA while viruses have only RNA. However, notwithstanding that difference, the effect of the copper ions is essentially the same. 

copper and covid-19

The following diagram, courtesy of the American Society of Microbiology, offers a more detailed depiction of this process. Portion "A" of the diagram depicts copper dissolving from the copper surface and copper ions causing damage to the membrane of the bacteria/virus. Portion "B" depicts the membrane rupturing as a result of the copper ions, causing damage to the bacteria/virus. Portion "C" depicts the copper ions inducing the creation of reactive oxygen which may cause further damage to the membrane. Portion "D" depicts the DNA/RNA within the membrane becoming damaged and inactivated.

copper and coronavirus

In one leading study, cells of e. coli were exposed for 1 minute to a copper surface, a normal non-copper surface, and a stainless steel surface. The study showed that cells exposed to the copper surface suffered membrane damage and quickly became immobilized. The following microscopic images from the study show the result. Live bacteria with intact membranes are green, while those with damaged membranes are red:

copper and coronavirus

Business and Government Start Considering Greater Use of Copper

As discussed in Forbes, this compelling research on the anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties of copper has led the medical industry to rush to create and manufacture specialized face masks made with copper. Because of the presence of copper in these masks, they are naturally anti-viral and self-sterilizing, which will hopefully help medical professionals re-use the masks for multiple patients. This may help address shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE). In addition, engineers have developed a process which is capable of spraying a thin layer of copper on door-handles and doorknobs. 

Other recent investigations prompted by COVID-19 have also demonstrated that the speed of copper's anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects can be accelerated if the copper is shaped in a way that maximizes the surface area of copper which makes contact with the bacteria or virus. It is for this reason that some businesses have started producing copper designed with a hammered or otherwise uneven texture to maximum surface area.

In addition, some governments have begun to consider the possibility of using copper in public areas in order to minimize the spread of infections. For example, a New York State Assemblywoman recently introduced a bill that would require publicly funded construction projects to use copper. The bill would require all new construction projects receiving state funding to use copper alloy touch surfaces – including door handles, bathroom fixtures, bed rails and handrails. It has been said that the legislation would reduce the spread of infection and help boost the local economy by investing in locally made materials.

The Problem with Normal Reusable Water Bottles

As research studies have shown, ordinary reusable water bottles can become environments that are prone to cultivating harmful bacteria and viruses.

As we use our water bottles throughout the day, they repeatedly come into contact with our hands, and thereby become covered in bacteria and potentially viruses. While the same is true of many other things (such as our smartphones), water bottles are more problematic because we put them to our mouths and drink from them. While it may be difficult to think about, the reality is that we put something covered in germs to our lips multiple times each day.

This problem is aggravated by the way that most reusable water bottles are designed. Often, we carry our water bottles by holding them by their caps or lids. This means that our hands come into contact with the lip of the bottle, which ends up touching our mouths when we drink from it. 

Even if our water bottles are designed differently and we wash our hands multiple times per day, droplets floating in the air containing bacteria and viruses (from other people that may have coughed or sneezed) can land on our water bottles. We can then become infected by those same bacteria and viruses when we drink from our water bottles.

In addition, there is plenty happening inside most reusable water bottles which is concerning. As studies have shown, there is a significant link between reusable water bottles and the growth of bacteria colonies. In short, since the nature and function of reusable water bottles involves moisture, they become breeding grounds for bacteria and viruses.

This problem can be further aggravated by the way that we refill our water bottles. For example, if we use a water dispenser or water fountain at the workplace, gym or in an airport, there is a very good chance that bacteria or viruses left by someone else who used that water dispenser or water fountain before us will find their way into our water bottle, contaminating the bottle and the water in it.

The Solution: Anti-Bacterial Copper Water Bottles

Mother nature has fortunately provided a solution in the form of copper. As demonstrated by various research studies, copper naturally and safely kills bacteria and viruses through a natural process. As mentioned above, copper has been used for thousands of years to sterilize contaminated water naturally and safely. 

What does this all mean for the coronavirus outbreak? It means that anytime you touch your copper water bottle, you can have confidence that any bacteria or viruses on the copper surface have already been destroyed or are currently under attack by copper ions. It also means that any bacteria or viruses present in your water bottle will be destroyed by virtue of the copper material from which the water bottle is made. It also means that your water bottle is naturally self-sterilizing, meaning you can put your mind at ease and not worry that your water bottle is becoming a risky bacteria and virus trap.

Copper H2O is the global market leader and original provider of the highest quality, 100% pure copper water bottles. All of our copper bottles ship within 1 business day from our warehouse in California, USA, and our processing times are unaffected and secure from the pandemic outbreak. Protect your health by ordering today and we will also donate 15% of the profits to charities supporting coronavirus relief efforts.

Click here to purchase a copper water bottle

Or, click here to purchase a copper water pitcher or a copper cup from our sister company, Shantiva.

Of course, a copper water vessel doesn't replace healthy hygiene practices, self-isolating and social distancing in the prevention of coronavirus. Make sure to wash your hands frequently throughout the day with soap and water for 20 seconds and self-isolate where possible.

Let's support our good health together and flatten the curve! If you have any questions, please email us anytime at hello@copperh2o.com or comment below.

About the Authors: This article was collaboratively written by our team of researchers and writers with the benefit of all available scientific studies and other relevant literature. Our team of researchers and writers include experienced health researchers including a qualified medical professional. Please note that information in this article is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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Copper Deficiency: The Complete Guide

Copper Deficiency: The Complete Guide

Copper deficiency is a condition that is often underdiagnosed or mistaken for other health issues. It can occur due to different reasons, but it mainly happens because of low dietary copper intake. Even a mild deficiency can lower the immune system and cause fatigue. Severe copper deficiency, on the other hand, can lead to serious health issues and, in extreme cases, death.

Copper belongs to a small group of metals that play an important role in human health. However, the human body cannot manufacture copper, and we, therefore, need to supply our body with it from outside sources. Copper deficiency mainly occurs when we consume too little dietary copper.

Unfortunately, modern research has shown that despite general belief, most people do not consume adequate amounts of copper. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently noted that copper deficiency is likely a common and worldwide phenomenon. Even if this includes a large population with marginal or ‘mild’ copper deficiency, it still poses a problem, as even a mild deficiency can impair one’s health in subtle ways.

In this guide, we will look at the common culprits behind copper deficiency, the problems it can cause, and how you can treat it.

The Importance of Copper to the Body

Copper is one of the essential minerals needed for the proper function of many important processes in the body. By binding with certain proteins, it aids in the production of enzymes that function as catalysts to a number of bodily functions.

To name a few, copper plays an important role in providing energy to the body, transforming melanin for pigmentation of the skin, and in the formation of collagen and elastin (and, thus, the maintenance and repair of connective tissues). The last process is especially important for the heart and arteries.

Furthermore, copper is essential for the proper function of the immune system. It helps the body in numerous ways, from the production of white and red blood cells and the absorption of iron all the way to ensuring proper brain and nerve function.

In other words, a lack of this important metal affects all the previously mentioned processes and can even lead to further complications.

How Much Copper Is Present in the Body and How Much Do We Need Per Day?

The adult body contains around 0.6 – 0.95 milligrams of copper per a pound of body weight (1.4 - 2.1 mg/kilogram). When looking at a healthy person weighing 130 pounds (60 kilograms), this translates to approximately 0.1g of copper.

The recommended amount of copper intake per day (micrograms/day) varies based on age, gender, and other factors:

  • 0-6 months: 200 mcg/day (AI or Adequate Intake);
  • 7-12 months: 220 mcg/day (AI);
  • 1-3 years: 340 mcg/day;
  • 4-8 years: 440 mcg/day;
  • 9-13 years: 700 mcg/day;
  • 14-18 years: 890 mcg/day;
  • 19+ years: 900 mcg/day;
  • Pregnancy (all ages): 1,000 mcg/day;
  • Lactation: 1,300 mcg/day.

Copper is naturally found in many different types of food as well as in copper-infused water which can be created with a copper water bottle. While ensuring that enough copper enters the body, you should also take into consideration the interest in not exceeding the recommended upper limits.

If you believe you should increase your or your child’s copper intake, it is always best to consult a health professional first.

What Causes Copper Deficiency?

There are several culprits behind copper deficiency. They range from nutrition and lifestyle to genetics. A simple answer to the question of what causes copper deficiency is that copper deficiency occurs when copper is not supplied or absorbed within the body in the necessary amounts.

The risk factors which can lead to lower copper content in the body include:

Low Intake of Dietary Copper

Simply put, if you do not ingest enough copper regularly, the body will bind or flush out the copper you already have and start being deficient in it if it is not replenished. This phenomenon can happen if you regularly eat foods low in copper without introducing more variety to your diet.

Vegetarians, for example, are at greater risk of becoming copper-deficient because they typically consume plant foods in which copper bioavailability is low. As a study explains, the mineral bioavailability can be affected by the increased presence of fiber, phytic acid, and oxalic acid. This should be worrisome when unrefined cereal intakes are high and copper intakes are low.

People with chronic diseases that result in low food intakes, such as alcoholics and people with eating disorders, are also at risk of ingesting low amounts of copper because of the sheer lack of necessary nutrients that are otherwise present in food.

Another common risk of becoming copper-deficient is when a patient is maintained on total parenteral nutrition for long periods of time without proper copper supplementation.

The risk for copper deficiency may also be higher among the elderly and athletes due to special needs which increase their daily copper requirements.

Prenatal and Postnatal Copper Deficiency

Copper deficiency during pregnancy can cause problems for the child as well. This is because the child receives the necessary nutrients from their mother. In the case of copper, a mother that lacks the necessary copper can put their child at risk of birth defects, serious growth issues, and deadly genetic disorders. The higher the copper deficiency in the mother, the higher the risk to the baby’s health.

Newborn babies are also at risk of becoming copper-deficient because of a diet poor in copper. Essentially, babies that are breastfed or fed with fortified formula do receive the necessary copper amounts. On the other hand, babies fed with cow’s milk, or premature infants who undergo rapid growth on a diet poor in copper, are at a high risk of nutritional copper deficiency.

The Competitive Trio: Zinc, Iron, and Copper

Copper deficiency can be induced by select mineral supplements, particularly zinc and iron. This is because these three important minerals behave in a competitive manner. When there is an excess of one of these minerals, the intestinal absorption of copper is blocked, and remains so until the excess is eliminated. This process works either way; high copper intake can affect zinc and iron intake, and vice versa.

Zinc has been found to cause copper deficiency in circumstances where there has been high zinc intake over a period of time, leading to anemia and other health issues. In fact, it has been established that 62% of patients have been prescribed zinc at doses high enough to cause copper deficiency. To avoid zinc-induced copper deficiency, the zinc to copper intake ratio should not exceed 30:1.

The same is true for high iron intake, which has been found to negatively affect copper intake resulting, again, in anemia, cardiovascular issues, and other copper-related health issues. While iron-induced copper deficiency is not as common as one caused by zinc, it is nevertheless something you need to be aware of.

While all of these minerals are very important for the body, it is also important to maintain a healthy balance in terms of intake. The current recommended dietary allowance for zinc is around 8 mg/day for women and 11 mg/day for men. In the case of iron, the current RDA for adults aged 19-50 is 8 mg/day for men and 18 mg/day for women.

The recommended values, however, vary depending on age and other factors, such as pregnancy or lactation.

Malabsorption of Copper in the Intestine

Certain cases can lead to impaired absorption of copper in the intestine, even if you ingest enough copper. Aside from malabsorption caused by high zinc and iron amounts, copper absorption can also be blocked by high amounts of Vitamin C intake (more than 1500 mg/day) because of the same reason as with zinc and iron: competition for absorption.

The most common cause of copper deficiency is reduced absorption related to surgery on the gastrointestinal system. This can include a gastric bypass, gastrectomy, and upper gastrointestinal surgery.

Additionally, there could be issues related to copper absorption if you suffer from malabsorption syndrome, such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel syndrome. In such a case, your body is not able to fully absorb all the nutrients in the food you ingest, leading to copper deficiency and other nutrient deficiencies.

Hereditary Disorders – Menkes Disease

Menkes disease is a genetic mutation that affects the copper-transport protein ATP7A, leading to serious copper deficiency. It is characterized by a peculiar steel-colored, kinky hair, floppy muscles, seizures, hypothermia, growth failure, and nervous system deterioration.

This disease occurs during early to middle childhood, generally affecting male infants. Female children of a carrier mother have an even chance of carrying the disorder but not be affected by it.

The Effects of Copper Deficiency

Depending on the severity of the deficiency, copper deficiency may lead to some of the following health issues:

  • Anemia;
  • Compromised immune function;
  • An increased risk of infection;
  • Low body temperature;
  • Skin and hair depigmentation;
  • Osteoporosis;
  • Bone fractures;
  • Thyroid problems;
  • Loss of skin;
  • Growth retardation;
  • Delayed puberty;
  • Brain tissue and nervous system damage;
  • Cardiovascular disease; and
  • Other complications.

The Symptoms of Copper Deficiency

Copper deficiency takes time to develop and show symptoms. In fact, you may be deficient without knowing it until the deficiency becomes more severe. However, there are a few signs which can point to deficiency.

Fatigue

As copper plays an important role in the formation of the red blood cells, the body, when deficient, becomes depleted of the necessary oxygen which helps our bodies  function properly. In other words, we develop anemia which affects our energy levels.

Additionally, the cells use copper to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the main source of energy for our bodies. When deficient, the body cannot generate enough ATP, resulting in weakness and fatigue.

Pain, Numbness, Weakness, and Disrupted Mood

Copper plays an important role in the production and maintenance of myelin. This is a substance that coats the nerves and facilitates the communication of signals throughout the nervous system. Additionally, a copper-containing enzyme is also responsible for converting dopamine into norepinephrine, resulting in mood disruptions.

The lack of copper can result in neurological conditions such as:

  • Myelopathy, which causes diminishing body function, pain, and weakness;
  • Peripheral neuropathy, which causes weakness, numbness, and pain, usually felt in the hands and feet; and
  • Improper synthesis of neurotransmitters, which can cause lowered feelings of pleasure and reward and other mood-related issues.

Frequent Colds and Sicknesses

A copper-deficient body is one with a compromised immune system. This is because copper helps in the formation of white blood cells. The compromised ability of the body to fight pathogens results in frequent colds and other infections.

Problems with Memory and Learning

Copper deficiency can lead to difficulties with learning and remembering. This is because the brain needs copper to function properly and develop. More precisely, copper is used by enzymes that supply energy to the brain and aid in the brain’s ability to defend itself and relay signals to the body.

Difficulties Walking

The nervous system relies on copper due to certain enzymes that require it to maintain optimal health of the spinal cord. They do so by insulating it, resulting in better signal relay between the body and the brain. When deficient in copper, these signals are not relayed efficiently, resulting in loss of coordination and unsteadiness.

Weak and Brittle Bones

Also known as osteoporosis, this condition has been linked to lower copper amounts in the body. This is because copper helps to create cross-links inside your bones, which ensure that the bones are strong and healthy. Additionally, copper contributes to the creation of osteoblasts, which are cells that help to reshape and strengthen bone tissue.

Sensitivity to Cold

Copper deficiency negatively affects the function of the thyroid gland in a manner that can cause it to fail to regulate metabolism and heat production. This is because copper affects the production of the T3 and T4 levels of thyroid hormones. When these are low, the thyroid gland may not work as effectively.

Pale Skin and Premature Gray Hair

Melanin is a pigment that determines the color of the skin and hair. As copper is used by enzymes that help in the production of melanin, a lack of it can affect the production of the pigment, resulting in pale skin and premature gray hair.

Vision Loss

In cases of long-term copper deficiency, the nervous system can become seriously affected, and this includes the optic nerve. If damaged due to a severe lack of copper for a longer time, it can result in partial or total vision loss.

How to Diagnose Copper Deficiency

If you suspect that your copper levels may be low, you should consult your doctor and ask to be tested. Copper deficiency is diagnosed by analyzing blood, 24-hour urine, and liver (hepatic) tissue.

The blood test measures the ceruloplasmin, blood copper levels, and free (unbound) copper in the blood. Ceruloplasmin is a protein that is made in the liver and which carries copper from the liver into the bloodstream and to the parts of the body that need it.

The urine test usually accompanies the blood test if the ceruloplasmin levels are abnormal or unclear. This test measures copper elimination levels. A 24-hour urine means the collection of all urine over a 24-hour period of time.

The liver biopsy is done to evaluate copper storage in the liver, as this is where copper is stored in the body.

A ceruloplasmin test is usually done if the person shows symptoms of Wilson disease, copper deficiency, or copper toxicity. It is also done on infants that show symptoms of Menkes syndrome.

Copper Deficiency Treatment

Copper deficiency is treated with either oral supplementation or intravenous copper. In cases of zinc intoxication, people are advised to stop taking zinc in order for the copper levels to go back to normal. This is also accompanied by oral copper supplementation.

Sources of Copper

Copper is important, so even if you do not have a copper deficiency it is paramount to ensure that it is present in your diet. You can find naturally occurring copper in different foods and you can also take copper supplements or drink copper-infused water.

Food

Copper is found in a wide variety of foods. Foods such as oysters and other shellfish, whole grains, beans, nuts, potatoes, and organ meats (kidneys, liver) are rich in dietary copper. Additionally, leafy greens, dried fruits, and yeast are also good sources of copper.

You can read more about the Top 28 Foods High in Copper to understand which foods are best, why they are high in copper, and how much you would need to satisfy your daily copper needs.

Copper Pills and Supplements

Copper pills and supplements are an excellent source of copper in cases of copper deficiency. There are different forms of copper available to purchase in pill and supplement form, and the absorption varies in terms of bioavailability. Namely, you can find copper supplements in the form of cupric oxide, cupric sulfate, copper amino acid chelates, and copper gluconate.

While there are not enough studies that confirm which form of copper is more easily absorbed in the body, one study has examined the difference between copper sulfate and copper glycinate (chelated copper). That study established that copper glycinate has better bioavailability.

In either case, it is important that you do not take copper supplements with iron or zinc and avoid zinc denture creams because of the competitive nature between these minerals.

Copper-Infused Water

Copper-infused water, or water stored in a copper vessel, is also a good source of copper supplementation. While drinking this type of water can help in fighting copper deficiency, the amounts are not high enough to replace oral or intravenous supplementation. However, regular consumption of copper-infused water can help to prevent copper deficiency and can lend a helping hand in the treatment of the same.

On the Opposite Side of the Spectrum: Copper Toxicity

According to the Copper Alliance, people are at a higher risk of copper deficiency than of copper toxicity. The World Health Organization has recognized that people worldwide are at greater risk of adverse health effects from a copper deficiency than from excess copper.

Although rare, copper toxicity is a serious issue that should be looked into when it comes to consuming products and substances which contain copper. It occurs when too much copper has entered the body and can be the result of either chronic copper buildup or acute copper poisoning.

Symptoms of acute copper poisoning include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. More serious complications include brain damage, severe liver damage, kidney failure, coma, and death.

The tolerable uptake levels for copper are:

  • 0-12 months: not possible to establish (sources should be only from food and formula);
  • 1-3 years: 1,000 mcg/day;
  • 4-8 years: 3,000 mcg/day;
  •  9-13 years: 5,000 mcg/day;
  • 14-18 years: 8,000 mcg/day;
  • 19+ years: 10,000 mcg/day.

The Bottom Line

Copper is a very important mineral that aids in many crucial functions in our body. In cases of copper deficiency, we become at risk of various conditions and complications which can lead to further health problems.

What is more, if you are a pregnant mother or are lactating, your child will need the copper you provide them. Babies that have not received enough copper during the pre-natal and post-natal period can experience stunted growth and other complications that can affect their lives negatively.

While the general truth is that severe copper deficiency is rare, mild copper deficiency is more common than you may think, and it contributes to a compromised immune function, mood changes, and other problems that lower the quality of your day-to-day life.

Taking measures to prevent copper deficiency is as simple as eating a variety of foods rich in copper and drinking copper-infused water.These approaches can also help in cases of already-existing copper deficiency.

If you suspect that you may be suffering from copper deficiency, we recommend that you consult a health professional and get tested. In this case, you may need to boost your diet with copper supplements and lower your zinc intake.

About the Authors: This article was collaboratively written by our team of researchers and writers with the benefit of all available scientific studies and other relevant literature. Our team of researchers and writers include experienced health researchers including a qualified medical professional. Please note that information in this article is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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Is it Safe to Drink from Copper?

Is it Safe to Drink from Copper?

Copper water vessels are beautiful, but are they safe and healthy? In this article, we will look at the potential benefits and risks of drinking water from copper vessels, and what you can do to ensure that you are receiving the best of what copper has to offer. Let's dive in!

Introduction

People have been drinking water stored in copper vessels for millennia. In fact, copper can easily be put among the most important metals ever utilized by humankind. When in touch with water, copper leaches safe amounts of copper ions which, besides their strong antibacterial and alkalizing properties, contribute to many important processes in the body.

However, as with everything, badly manufactured copper vessels and improper use can cause more harm than good. So, is it safe to drink water out of copper vessels? The answer depends on different factors, and it comes down to the quality of the vessel, what you store in it, how you use it, and how often you clean it.

In this article, we will look at the potential benefits and risks of drinking water from copper vessels, and what you can do to ensure that you are receiving the best of what copper has to offer.

The Practice of Drinking Water from Copper Vessels

Copper has been utilized for more than nine millennia. Ancient cultures held high regard for this metal for its antibacterial properties. In fact, the ancient Egyptians associated copper with the symbol for eternal life, the ankh, which was later also adopted, albeit slightly modified, as a symbol for copper by the ancient Greeks.

The ancient civilizations found many uses for this metal: from utensils and vessels to mirrors, jewelry, and even weaponry. Perhaps one of the most notable uses of copper was the manufacture of water-storing vessels, as this ensured bacteria-free drinkable water.

Because of this discovery, some cultures, like the Hindu culture, would go on to introduce copper into their medicine. Ayurvedic medicine went a step further, recognizing copper as one of the most important metals responsible for the health and well-being of the human body.

This use of copper vessels for storing and drinking water continues to this day. Thanks to its low reactivity and high durability, copper has been used in the manufacture of water pipes, water-storing jugs, bottles, mugs, and cups.

If the water you drink comes from the tap, there is a chance that it passes through copper pipes and, thus, contributes to about 10% of your daily copper needs.

In the case of copper vessels, storing water in copper jugs, bottles, or other containers means allowing copper ions to leach into the water over time. When you drink copper-infused water, you ingest small and safe quantities of copper which are necessary for the normal functioning of the body, while also ensuring that no harmful bacteria is present in your drinking water.

The Health Benefits of Drinking Out of Copper

As you are already aware, copper has excellent antibacterial properties. Studies have shown that storing water in copper vessels ensures the elimination of harmful bacteria such as E. Coli, Salmonella, and Vibrio Cholerae. This helps translates into safe drinking water, and copper vessels can be especially useful when traveling to developing countries with questionable water quality.

Additionally, copper vessels have an alkalizing effect on the water, making it even more beneficial for your health. This happens when the copper ions are released into the water, increasing its pH.

The copper ions that are released into the water over time also serve to provide an additional intake of this important mineral, which supports many important bodily functions.

Copper has been found to support the production of red blood cells, the absorption of iron, the regulation of the heart rate and blood pressure, the immune system, connective tissue and bones, the brain and the heart, while also preventing inflammation and prostatitis.

For more information about the usefulness of copper, you can read our comprehensive article on the benefits of copper on health.

Is it Safe to Drink Water from Copper Vessels?

Generally, if you limit the use of copper vessels to drinking water only, there are no risks or dangers that you should be concerned about. This, of course, needs to be coupled with high-quality, food-safe copper vessels that come from reputable sellers.

It is true that copper reacts when in touch with water in a process known as oxidation. In fact, this process is how copper oxide ions are released into the water. When used properly, the copper leached into the water overnight amounts to 0.475 ppm (parts per million). This amount is well within the water copper content limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) – which is 2 ppm (or 2 mg per liter).

The main concerns related to drinking water out of copper vessels are related to copper poisoning which may occur as a result of an excessive amount of copper in the water. While this is a valid concern, using copper vessels properly will generally not result in such an effect, as copper is a metal that has low reactivity and high durability.

This, unfortunately, does not make drinking out of copper vessels risk-free. As you will see below, if the copper vessel is unlined, you should be careful to limit its use to storing drinking water only. Additionally, you should only purchase copper vessels that guarantee 100% pure and food-grade copper which has been manufactured to the highest standards.

How Much Water is Safe to Drink from a Copper Vessel?

We need copper in our daily consumption for a well-functioning body. And while copper also comes from other sources, such as dark chocolate or certain nuts, adding an additional source of copper is never a bad idea. The fact that the copper levels in copper-infused water are well within the recommended limits means that it can be safe to drink it for as long as you wish.

When It Is Dangerous to Drink from Copper Vessels

Just like with anything else, there are always certain risks that may affect you negatively. This is inevitably true for copper vessels, and it boils down to how you use them, what you store in them, and whether they should be used for consumption purposes at all.

The dangers related to drinking from copper vessels can vary from an excessive intake of copper due to a reaction with acidic substances to badly manufactured vessels that contain impure copper or chemicals which can interact with the water.

Here is what you should beware of when purchasing and using a copper vessel.

Storing Acidic Liquids or Foods

If the copper vessel is unlined, the copper that touches the acidic substance may react and release a large amount of copper salts such as blue vitriol (bluestone), copper sulfate, and verdigris. This can be dangerous, as it may lead to copper toxicity and cause a number of health issues that can even be fatal.

These substances include but are not limited to pickled foods, honey, milk and dairy products, or anything citrusy, such as lemon, lime, or orange juice. The rule of thumb is to only store drinking water in copper vessels that have not been lined on the inside. In fact, these vessels are made solely for the purpose of storing water.

Exposure to Heat

When heated, copper becomes more reactive and, thus, bound to release a much larger number of copper ions when in contact with another substance. This is how it also tarnishes more easily, and it is one of the reasons not to put copper vessels into the dishwasher.

When it comes to how this process affects the liquids you are storing in the vessels, it is important to note that you should not use the vessel to heat water or put hot water in it. If you prefer to store water that you have previously boiled, make sure you let the water cool off to room temperature before you pour it into the copper vessel.

Copper pans and pots are lined for this reason. Here, the copper is used to distribute heat more evenly, and because copper pots and pans look beautiful. However, if the lining is damaged, do not use the cookware under any circumstance. Have it repaired or throw it away.

Improper or Irregular Cleaning

Copper tarnishes over time. While tarnish itself is not dangerous and may even reduce the reactivity of copper when in touch with water, it can become dangerous when the copper surface has started to rust and create a green patina. Regular cleaning is recommended not only for achieving the full effects of storing water in copper, but also as a precautionary measure.

Also, when it comes to cleaning, you should be careful about what kind of cleaning products you are using to clean your copper vessels. Avoid using hard chemicals or placing your copper vessels in the dishwasher. For more information on how to clean copper, you can check out this guide.

Beware of Bad Manufacturers and Sellers

Unfortunately, there are a number of low-quality manufacturers and sellers of copper vessels that sell adulterated copper or apply chemicals to the surface of the copper which contaminates the water stored within.

The risks related to purchasing low-quality copper vessels can include:

  • Impure copper. To cut down on manufacturing costs, some sellers may choose to use lower-grade copper that contains impurities that may negatively affect the quality of the water you are storing.
  • Varnished copper vessels. Some sellers choose to varnish their copper vessels to prevent tarnishing. However, this means that you will be storing your water in an environment that is bound to absorb dangerous chemicals.
  • Copper-plated vessels. In some cases, a low price tag may point to a lack of copper or, in other words, a plain metal vessel that has been only plated with copper. The copper plating will start to rub off after only a few months of use, resulting in exposure to a metal that can be dangerous to drink water from.

The Risks of Improper Usage of Copper Vessels

Aside from the risks related to using low-quality copper vessels, improper usage of copper vessels, such as in the case of storing acidic substances, can lead to serious health issues.

This is because when used improperly the copper can react with the environment and release excessive amounts of copper salts. A metallic taste can be an indicator of an excessive amount of copper in the water.

Ingesting these salts can cause copper toxicity. Copper toxicity is characterized by different symptoms that can range from mild to severe, and these include:

  • Nausea;
  • Headaches;
  • Fever;
  • Vomiting;
  • Blood in vomit;
  • Abdominal cramps;
  • Diarrhea;
  • Black feces;
  • Yellowing of eyes and skin (jaundice);
  • Brown ring-shaped markings in the eyes (Kayser-Fleischer rings); and
  • Passing out.

Additionally, copper poisoning can include the following mental and behavioral symptoms:

  • Anxiety and irritability;
  • Trouble paying attention;
  • Over-excitement and feeling overwhelmed;
  • Unusual sadness or depression; and
  • Sudden mood changes.

Long-term copper toxicity can be fatal and can lead to kidney conditions, liver damage or failure, heart failure, and brain damage.

If you have been experiencing symptoms like those mentioned above, it is highly advisable to consult a health professional.

While properly stored copper water cannot cause copper toxicity, it still contributes to an increase in the copper levels in your body. Therefore, it is best to stop drinking copper-infused water until you understand the cause of the symptoms.

How to Ensure that You Are Purchasing a Good-Quality Copper Vessel

There are several ways to ensure that you are dealing with a reputable seller of copper vessels, as well as to ensure that the vessel you are buying is made to the highest standards. Here is what to pay attention to:

The Seller’s Reputation

When buying a copper vessel, do not opt for the cheapest option. Instead, look for a reputable and market-leading seller that can guarantee the quality of their product. You should also check their credibility by reading online reviews. Copper H2O is the original maker and seller of high-quality copper water bottles, while Shantiva offers 100% pure copper water pitchers.

Copper Purity

When looking for a copper vessel, make sure that you confirm with the seller that their product is made of 100% pure food-grade copper. This guarantee should serve as a testament to the quality of the vessel you are purchasing.

Additionally, looking for visual cues can help in determining if the vessel is made out of pure copper. A sure way to recognize pure copper is by looking at the shape and design of the vessel. Pure copper is soft and cannot be molded into intricate shapes and designs. Additionally, the color of the vessel should be pinkish-orange.

The Manufacture of the Vessel

Depending on what kind of copper vessel you are purchasing, there are some elements that need to be present to ensure that they are made to the highest standards.

Copper water jugs. This type of vessel usually comes with a handle. Make sure the handle has been welded. The unacceptable alternatives can include riveted handles, which are much cheaper to manufacture, but also much more dangerous for consumption purposes.

This is because the rivets may not be made out of copper, but rather out of metals which can affect the water quality. Additionally, to avoid potential leaks because of the rivets, the manufacturer may add glue, which can be highly toxic and may contaminate the water stored in the pitcher.

Additionally, even if the handles have been welded, the practice of welding itself requires proper handling. In cases of low-quality pitchers, some manufacturers may apply too much heat during the welding process, resulting in microscopic holes through the body of the pitcher which may cause leakage.

Copper water bottles. In addition to the general risks of poor manufacturing practices, such as impure copper, varnish, or copper plating, there have been cases of badly constructed copper bottles. This can result in copper shards peeling off the inner surface of the bottle and ending up in the drinking water.

Copper mugs. Generally, copper mugs are famously used for cocktails such as the Moscow Mule. You should be aware that everything that goes into these cocktails is acidic, and that the mug must be lined to prevent the formation of dangerous copper salts. The quality of the lining is also important here, as poorly lined mugs may result in the exposure of the copper to the liquids.

The Price Tag

When buying copper vessels, cheaper is not better. While this does not mean that you should be paying for overpriced vessels, it does mean that there is a reason why the product has been set at a lower price. Generally, an authentic copper water bottle ranges between $35 and $45 USD, while an authentic copper pitcher should cost between $40 and $60 USD. This indicator, however, is not as strong as the reputation and quality assertion of the seller.

The Bottom Line

Drinking water out of copper vessels is a practice that has been around since the discovery of copper. If you properly limit the use of these vessels to storing water, using them can be a safe and healthy practice.

This is, of course, based on the assumption that you are using a quality vessel. The quality of the copper and the manufacture of the vessel play an important role in the outcome. So, while it is important to ensure that you do not store acidic substances in the copper vessel, you should also ensure that the copper vessel comes from a reputable seller that can guarantee its quality.

Improper manufacture and usage of copper vessels can result in various risks that can affect your health negatively, so be aware of where you buy your vessel and how you use it.

When used properly, you can be sure that you are going to enjoy the many benefits of copper-infused water to the fullest potential. So, enjoy your water and stay healthy!

About the Authors: This article was collaboratively written by our team of researchers and writers with the benefit of all available scientific studies and other relevant literature. Our team of researchers and writers include experienced health researchers including a qualified medical professional. Please note that information in this article is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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Studies Support Use of Copper Water Bottles (Updated 2020)

Studies Support Use of Copper Water Bottles (Updated 2020)

Did you know that recent studies show that drinking water stored in copper bottles is a safe and beneficial practice? In this blog post, we'll summarize those studies and explain how you can benefit from using a copper water vessel. Let's get started!

Research Studies

While the concept of storing water in a copper water bottle or other copper vessel arose centuries ago and has its origins in Ayurvedic principles, the practice is gaining increasing attention from the scientific community. In fact, several recent studies have substantiated  that drinking water stored in a copper vessel is a safe and beneficial health practice. In this blog post, we'll summarize the results of three recent scientific studies concerning the use of copper water vessels as well as a report from the World Health Organization.

In one recent study, which was published in the Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, scientists studied the effect of storing water in a copper pot on microbially-contaminated drinking water, including harmful bacteria such as E.coli and salmonella. In particular, scientists stored water contaminated with this bacteria in copper pots for 16 hours at room temperature. Incredibly, following the 16-hour storage period, the scientists were unable to recover any bacteria from the water. In addition, the scientists found that the water's pH level had increased, meaning that it had naturally become more alkaline. As other studies have shown, natural alkaline water has a variety of health benefits.

Significantly, the scientists also determined that the copper content of the water was less than 0.2 ppm (parts per million), which represents an amount far less than the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization ("WHO"). As the study states, “safety of leached copper does not appear to be an issue since studies have shown that the current WHO guideline of 2 mg Cu/L is safe” and the levels absorbed in the study were well within permissible limits.

The WHO's recent report entitled Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality identified an upper limit for consumption of copper in water as 2.0 ppm (or 2 mg per litre), which is far higher than the amount of copper found in the water that was stored overnight in the copper pots as part of the study. Accordingly, the scientific evidence shows that there is no realistic risk of consuming too much copper by drinking water stored in a copper vessel, even when that water is stored in the copper vessel overnight or even for several days (more on that below). As a result, there is no realistic risk that drinking water from a copper water bottle will cause gastrointestinal irritation or other health issues.

In another recent study, scientists again studied the effect of storing water in a copper pot on water contaminated with bacteria. In this study, the scientists incubated water with a colony of harmful bacteria and then stored the water overnight at room temperature in both copper pots and glass bottles. In the morning, the bacteria was no longer recoverable from the water that had been stored in the copper pots, although it was recovered from the water stored in the glass bottles. The study found that the water stored in the copper pots had also become more alkaline.

Significantly, the scientists also determined that while the water stored in the copper pots absorbed some of the copper overnight, the water’s copper content was less than 0.475 ppm, which is well within the permissible limits for human consumption and is thus safe for drinking.

In yet another recent study, researchers stored water contaminated with bacteria in a variety of different water containers, including copper and silver containers, in order to determine their efficacy at removing biological contamination from drinking water. The study revealed that the copper vessels had a significant inhibitory effect on the bacteria in the water after only a few hours of exposure. The scientists found that the pH of the water had also increased within a healthy range.

The scientists in that study also measured the concentration of copper in the water every 2 hours in order to determine whether the water remained safe for consumption. While the scientists detected a gradual increase in the amount of copper absorbed by the water, they determined that the amount still remained well within the permissible limits laid out by the WHO even after the water was stored in the copper vessel for several days.

The following graph from the report provides a helpful illustration of the rate at which copper was absorbed into the water. In particular, the data shows that the copper levels in the water remained within permissible levels even after several days. This study suggests that storing water in a copper bottle overnight or even for a few days does not pose any risk to health.

The conclusions of these and many other research studies support what Ayurvedic medicine has been telling us for centuries: that drinking water stored in a copper vessel can be a safe and beneficial health practice. We look forward to seeing more evidence in support of the use of copper water bottles as the practice gains increased attention from scientific community. If you are looking for a high-quality 100% pure copper water bottle, check out Copper H2O.

About the Authors: This article was collaboratively written by our team of researchers and writers with the benefit of all available scientific studies and other relevant literature. Our team of researchers and writers include experienced health researchers including a qualified medical professional. Please note that information in this article is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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The Health Benefits of Natural Alkaline Water (Updated 2020)

The Health Benefits of Natural Alkaline Water (Updated 2020)

In this post, we introduce alkaline water, explain its benefits, and identify the differences between natural alkaline water and artificial alkaline water. We also reveal the well-kept secret of how you can make homemade alkaline water easily, safely and inexpensively. Let’s dive in!

What is Alkaline Water?

Drinking alkaline water can be a great way to support a healthy lifestyle. However, did you know that there are two very different kinds of alkaline water with very significant differences between them from a health perspective?

The word “alkaline” in the term “alkaline water” essentially refers to the pH level of water. The term “pH” is a scientific term which essentially refers to the acidity or non-acidity of a liquid. All liquids have a pH, which is expressed on a scale of 0 to 14. Liquids with a lower pH (that is, closer to a pH of 0) are more acidic than liquids with a higher pH (that is, closer to a pH of 14).

For example, liquids with a pH lower than 7 (like coffee and vinegar) are acidic liquids, while liquids with a pH higher than 7 (like liquid soap and baking soda) are non-acidic liquids, which are also known as “alkaline” or “basic” liquids. Pure water has a pH of 7, which is considered neither acidic nor alkaline. Accordingly, alkaline water is water that has a pH greater 7 and is non-acidic. As discussed in more detail below, healthy alkaline water typically has a pH of 8 or 8.5.

Alkaline water is commonly believed to be beneficial to health. In particular, health advocates believes that alkaline water helps neutralize acidity in the body and thereby helps increase energy levels, slows the aging process, boosts the immune system, supports weight loss, detoxifies the body, cleanses the colon, rejuvenates the skin, supports the health of muscles and joints, and prevents numerous diseases, including cancer.

In fact, recent studies have found that alkaline water may benefit those with high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Moreover, other recent studies have found that drinking alkaline water neutralized acid in the bloodstream, leading to improved circulation and increased oxygen distribution throughout the body. Another recent study has also determined that drinking alkaline water can help fight or even eliminate acid reflux disease.

Differences Between Natural Alkaline Water and Artificial Alkaline Water

In general, there are two types of alkaline water. The first type of alkaline water is commonly known as “artificial alkaline water” or “artificially alkalinized water”. This is typically water that has been produced by passing tap water through an alkaline water machine, which is also known as an electrical ionizer.

Alkaline water machines operate by a process known as ionization or electrolysis, which is essentially a process that electrocutes water by repeatedly sending electric currents through it. Throughout the process, the water molecules are forcibly split by the electrical current and pushed over metal plates generally made of platinum and titanium. This process creates an exchange of platinum and titanium ions which essentially “forces” the water into a greater state of alkalinity. Adjusting the electrical flow determines how many ions are forced into the water. Some alkaline water machines also come with artificial powders that can be added to the water to make it even more alkaline.

Alkaline water machines generally increase the pH of water from 7 (being the “neutral” pH level of normal water) to an extreme pH of 12 or even 13, which is just short of the highest possible pH level (being a pH of 14).

While alkaline water machines are widely available for purchase in many stores as well as online, they are often marketed in a very aggressive manner along with claims that are false or misleading. As a result, you should exercise significant caution when considering an investment in an alkaline water machine. In fact, as described in detail below, many health advocates have cautioned that drinking artificial alkaline water for an extended period can have serious health side effects.

One reason advanced by health advocates is that the metals contained in alkaline water machines (platinum and titanium) are toxic and detrimental to your health. Accordingly, while water will become more alkaline as it passes through an alkaline water machine, it will also become increasingly toxic. In addition, alkaline water machines can increase the pH of water to an extreme level, which can negatively affect the body. In particular, excessive alkalinity can decrease natural stomach acidity, which can make your body more vulnerable to bacteria and viruses. In addition, drinking water that is too alkaline can cause gastrointestinal issues, negatively affect bone health, and cause skin irritation, as well as other health problems.

Artificial alkaline water is very similar to “empty food” that is high in calories but lacks the essential minerals that your body needs to flourish. In fact, a study published by the World Health Organization cautions against drinking water with low mineral content. When artificial alkaline water is consumed, its high pH level essentially “tricks” the body into thinking that it is receiving water that contains a significant amount of dissolved minerals. This “trick” can cause the body to release mineral reserves into the blood and kidneys, thereby ultimately making the body deficient in minerals as a result. In addition, the powders provided along with alkaline water machines are not pure and may also have negative health consequences. Beyond these health concerns, alkaline water machines can also be expensive to purchase and operate.

The issues associated with artificial alkaline water can be avoided by drinking what is commonly known as “natural alkaline water”, “naturally alkalinized water”, or “living water”. Natural alkaline water is essentially naturally-sourced water that has become alkaline as a result of its natural environment. For example, water can become naturally alkaline as it passes through a mountain spring. As the water flows and rubs against rocks in the earth, it will naturally pick up and absorb various minerals that will increase the water’s pH and make it more alkaline. Unlike artificially alkalinized water, naturally alkalinized water has a more naturally alkaline pH of 8 or 8.5, which is much healthier for your body.

Unfortunately, unless you live near a mountain spring, you may feel that you have little choice but to resort to buying natural alkaline water from a grocery store or health food store. Unfortunately, such water is almost always packaged in plastic bottles, which can leech chemicals into the water and thereby harm your health. In addition, plastic bottles are very harmful to the environment. Beyond these concerns, bottled water is generally expensive and the costs can quickly add up.

In addition, it is important to exercise significant caution when purchasing alkaline water in bottled form. Many grocery stores and specialty stores sell bottled alkaline water that is marketed as natural alkaline water when it is in fact artificially alkalinized water. In general, this water has been created through the process of reverse osmosis and has then been mixed with a powder in order to alkalinize it. As noted above, these powders are often not pure and can be harmful to health.

Fortunately, as described in more detail below, you can avoid the issues associated with artificial alkaline water and bottled alkaline water by making homemade alkaline water. You can make your own homemade natural alkaline water easily, safely and inexpensively using a copper water bottle.

How to Make Natural Alkaline Water at Home Using a Copper Bottle

When you store water in a copper water bottle, the water naturally and safely absorbs very small amounts of copper. This naturally ionizes the water and causes the water to become natural alkaline water.

As a result, a copper water bottle is essentially a natural alkaline water bottle. In fact, the process for making natural alkaline water in a copper bottle is much like the process by which water becomes natural alkaline water in nature. In nature, water can become alkaline by passing through a mountain spring and absorbing minerals. Water stored in a copper water bottle essentially does the same thing as it rubs against the walls of the copper bottle.

In fact, in a recent study scientists studying the effect of storing water in a copper vessel determined that the water became alkaline. In particular, the scientists discovered that the water's pH rose steadily the longer it was stored in the copper vessel. In addition, the scientists studied the effect of the copper vessel on microbially-contaminated drinking-water, including serious bacteria such as e.coli and salmonella. Incredibly, the scientists determined that water infected with these bacteria was completely decontaminated after being stored in a copper vessel for a number of hours at room temperature.

Apart from naturally making water alkaline, storing water in a copper water bottle can also have other health benefits. Copper is an essential mineral, and copper water (also known as “tamra jal” in ayurvedic medicine, and also commonly known as “copper infused water” or “copper charged water”) can have excellent health benefits. For example, copper is anti-bacterial, acts as an effective anti-oxidant, improves immunity, supports good health, prevents aging, eliminates toxins and free radicals, and stimulates the brain. Because copper is naturally anti-bacterial, copper water bottles are naturally self-sterilizing and do not require as much cleaning as other water bottles. Interesting, copper water vessels have been recognized for their health benefits throughout history.

Making alkaline water using a copper water bottle is as easy as pouring water into your copper water bottle and giving the water time to naturally alkaline. Water stored in a copper vessel will become increasingly alkaline the longer it remains in the copper vessel, and the speed and degree of the alkalinization process will depend on various environmental factors, including the temperature of the water and its original pH level. In general, the natural alkalinization process will occur a bit faster if the water is at room temperature or slightly warmer.

You can use any type of water in your copper water bottle, including tap water, water that has been passed through a filter, or even bottled water. You will probably notice the greatest difference with tap water, which is generally the least alkaline and in the need of the most care. Although tap water is generally fine in most first-world cities, you may wish to consider filtering you water before pouring it into your copper water bottle.

Make sure you use a copper water bottle that is made of 100% pure high-grade food-safe copper and does not have any other metals, alloys or lining. Make sure to do your research and ensure that you are avoiding certain manufactures (particularly those who sell on Amazon and Ebay and manufacture their copper bottles in China and India) who falsely claim to sell pure copper water bottles that are actually plain metal bottles plated with copper. Also make sure to avoid sellers who sell copper bottles that are coated on the interior with a toxic lacquer. Our copper bottles are 100% pure high-grade food-safe copper and contain absolutely no toxic materials of any kind.

In addition, you should try to use a hammered copper water bottle, as the hammered texture increases the surface area of copper on the inside of the copper water bottle which makes contact with the water stored in it. The greater the physical contact between the water and the copper, the greater the health benefits for you and the faster the speed of the natural alkalinization process.

In general, we suggest storing water in your copper water bottle for 6-8 hours for the most beneficial effect. For best results and a healthy start to your morning, try storing water in your copper water bottle overnight and drinking from it first thing in the morning. For some great tips on the healthiest way to drink water, check out our recent blog post about the healthy way to drink water

About the Authors: This article was collaboratively written by our team of researchers and writers with the benefit of all available scientific studies and other relevant literature. Our team of researchers and writers include experienced health researchers including a qualified medical professional. Please note that information in this article is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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